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    Scripting

    Lua

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    Lua and C# Comparison

    Introduction

    Highrise Studio uses Lua as its scripting language, which is different from C# used in Unity. While both languages share similarities, they have distinct features and syntax that set them apart.

    Line Endings

    You may have noticed that Lua uses semicolons (;) to separate statements, while C# uses semicolons at the end of each statement. In Lua, semicolons are optional, and line breaks are used to separate statements.

    -- Lua
    local message = "Hello, world!" --> No semicolon needed
    print(message); --> Semicolon is optional
    
    // C#
    string message = "Hello, world!"; // Semicolon is required
    Console.WriteLine(message); // Semicolon is required
    

    Comments

    Both Lua and C# support single-line and multi-line comments. In Lua, single-line comments start with --, while multi-line comments are enclosed in --[[ and ]]. In C#, single-line comments begin with //, and multi-line comments are enclosed in /* and */.

    Comments In Lua

    -- This is a single-line comment
    
    --[[
      Block comment
    --]]
    

    Comments In C#

    // This is a single-line comment
    
    /*
      Block comment
    */
    

    Reserved Keywords

    The following table compares some common reserved keywords in Lua and C#:

    LuaC#
    and&&
    breakbreak
    dodo
    elseelse
    elseifelse if
    ifif
    then
    end}
    forfor or foreach
    functionfunction
    inin
    localvar (in most cases)
    nilnull
    not!
    or`
    repeatdo while
    returnreturn
    until} (end of do while loop in C#)
    whilewhile

    Data Types

    Strings

    Strings In Lua

    -- Multi-line string
    local message = [[
      Hello, world!
    ]]
    
    -- Concatenation
    local name = "Alice"
    local greeting = "Hello, " .. name .. "!"
    local message = string.format("Hello, %s!", name)
    

    *Strings In C#

    // Multi-line string
    string message = @"
      Hello, world!
    ";
    
    // Concatenation
    string name = "Alice";
    string greeting = "Hello, " + name + "!";
    string message = string.Format("Hello, {0}!", name);
    

    Tables (Arrays)

    Tables In Lua

    -- Creating a table
    local fruits = {"apple", "banana", "orange"}
    
    -- Accessing elements
    print(fruits[1]) --> apple
    
    -- Iterating over elements
    for i, fruit in ipairs(fruits) do
        print(fruit)
    end
    

    Arrays In C#

    // Creating an array
    string[] fruits = {"apple", "banana", "orange"};
    
    // Accessing elements
    Console.WriteLine(fruits[0]); // apple
    
    // Iterating over elements
    foreach (string fruit in fruits)
    {
        Console.WriteLine(fruit);
    }
    

    Operators

    Conditional Operators

    In this table, we compare conditional operators in Lua and C#:

    OperatorLuaC#
    Equal to====
    Not equal to~=!=
    Less than<<
    Less than or equal to<=<=
    Greater than>>
    Greater than or equal to>=>=
    Logical ANDand&&
    Logical ORor`
    Logical NOTnot!

    Arithmetic Operators

    In this table, we compare arithmetic operators in Lua and C#:

    OperatorLuaC#
    Addition++
    Subtraction--
    Multiplication**
    Division//
    Modulus%%
    Exponentiation^**

    Variables

    Variables In Lua In Lua, variables don't specify a data type and are dynamically typed. You can assign any value to a variable without declaring its type explicitly.

    -- Declaring variables
    local health = 100 -- Integer
    local name = "Alice" -- String
    
    -- "Public" declaration
    playerName = "Bob"
    
    -- "Private" declaration
    local score = 0
    

    Variables In C#

    In C#, variables must specify a data type and are statically typed. You need to declare the type of a variable before assigning a value to it.

    // Declaring variables
    int health = 100; // Integer
    string name = "Alice"; // String
    
    // "Public" declaration
    public string playerName = "Bob";
    
    // "Private" declaration
    private int score = 0;
    

    Conditional Statements

    Conditional Statements In Lua

    -- One Condition
    if health < 25 then
        print("Low health! Take cover!")
    end
    
    -- Multiple Conditions
    if health < 25 then
        print("Low health! Take cover!")
    elseif health < 50 then
        print("Health is moderate. Be cautious!")
    else
        print("Health is good. Keep fighting!")
    end
    

    Conditional Statements In C#

    // One Condition
    if (health < 25)
    {
        Console.WriteLine("Low health! Take cover!");
    }
    
    // Multiple Conditions
    if (health < 25)
    {
        Console.WriteLine("Low health! Take cover!");
    }
    else if (health < 50)
    {
        Console.WriteLine("Health is moderate. Be cautious!");
    }
    else
    {
        Console.WriteLine("Health is good. Keep fighting!");
    }
    

    Loops

    While and Repeat Loops

    While Loop In Lua

    local countdown = 5
    
    while countdown > 0 do
        print(countdown)
        countdown = countdown - 1
    end
    
    -- Repeat Loop
    repeat
        print(countdown)
        countdown = countdown - 1
    until countdown == 0
    

    While Loop In C#

    int countdown = 5;
    
    while (countdown > 0)
    {
        Console.WriteLine(countdown);
        countdown--;
    }
    
    // No direct equivalent to repeat loop in C#
    do
    {
        Console.WriteLine(countdown);
        countdown--;
    } while (countdown > 0);
    

    Functions

    Generic Functions

    Functions In Lua

    function greetPlayer(playerName)
        print("Hello, " .. playerName .. "!")
    end
    
    greetPlayer("Alice")
    

    Functions In C#

    void GreetPlayer(string playerName)
    {
        Console.WriteLine("Hello, " + playerName + "!");
    }
    
    GreetPlayer("Alice");
    

    Variable Arguments Number

    Variable Arguments In Lua

    function addNumbers(...)
        local sum = 0
        for i, num in ipairs{...} do
            sum = sum + num
        end
        return sum
    end
    
    local total = addNumbers(1, 2, 3, 4, 5)
    print(total) --> 15
    

    Variable Arguments In C#

    int AddNumbers(params int[] numbers)
    {
        int sum = 0;
        foreach (int num in numbers)
        {
            sum += num;
        }
        return sum;
    }
    
    int total = AddNumbers(1, 2, 3, 4, 5);
    Console.WriteLine(total); // 15
    

    Named Arguments

    Named Arguments In Lua

    function greetPlayer(playerName, message)
        print(message .. ", " .. playerName .. "!")
    end
    
    greetPlayer{playerName = "Alice", message = "Hello"}
    

    Named Arguments In C#

    void GreetPlayer(string playerName, string message)
    {
        Console.WriteLine(message + ", " + playerName + "!");
    }
    
    GreetPlayer(playerName: "Alice", message: "Hello");
    

    Try-Catch Blocks

    Try-Catch In Lua

    local status, result = pcall(function()
        -- Code that may throw an error
    end)
    
    if not status then
        print("An error occurred: " .. result)
    end
    

    Try-Catch In C#

    
    try
    {
        // Code that may throw an error
    }
    catch (Exception e)
    {
        Console.WriteLine("An error occurred: " + e.Message);
    }
    

    Conclusion

    While Lua and C# share some similarities, they have distinct features and syntax that set them apart. Understanding these differences will help you transition between the two languages more effectively and write cleaner, more efficient code in Highrise Studio.

    Updated 16 days ago

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